The Materials Book

190 of alternative paths for material flows is needed to safeguard cities’ efforts to reduce direct emissions in the case of indirect emissions resulting from increased consumption. 1 K. C. Seto, S. Dhakal, A. Bigio, et al., “Human Settlements, Infrastructure and Spatial Planning,” in Climate Change 2014: Mitigation of Climate Change. Contribution of Working Group III to the Fifth Assessment Report of the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change , ed. O. Edenhofer, R. Pichs-Madruga, Y. Sokona, et al. (Cambridge: Cambridge University Press, 2014), 927. 2 Daniel B. Müller, Gang Liu, Amund N. Løvik, et al., “Carbon Emissions of Infrastructure Development,” Environmental Science & Technology 47, no. 20 (2013): 11739–46. 3 ARUP, OPDC, and LWARB, “Circular and Sharing Economy Scoping Study for Old Oak and Park Royal,” Greater London Authority, April 20, 2017, /files/9._circular_and_sharing_economy_study .pdf, 5.